The latest innovation in steam cooking, the SilverLine Smart Cooking System is the most powerful and versatile steam cooking system available. 3-A certified and meeting EHEDG, CE, and FDA requirements, this stainless steel system can adjust shear mechanically – from low shear to bloom starches to high shear for starch conversion – delivering predictable, precise, and repeatable results with superior quality every time.
Applications: Soups, sauces, slurries, beverages, dairy-based products, tomato-based products, starch-based products, high or low shear products, blended emulsification, pasteurization, and more...
Volume Capability: 5 up to 200 gpm [1.1 up to 45 m³/hr]
Direct Steam Injection Heating for the Wastewater Industry
Maintaining consistent sludge temperature in the Municipal, Agricultural, or Industrial markets can be challenging. If you are looking for a more efficient, cost-effective solution for heating your sludge without the scalding that can occur with a heat exchanger, then Hydro-Thermal has your solution.
Realize major cost savings with precise temperature control to aid in the anaerobic digestion process by keeping microorganisms at the required temperature to optimize effectiveness and increase methane gas production to power the boilers.
Hydro-Thermal’s patented designs can handle highly viscous slurries without burn on, plugging, or fouling typically resulting from other technologies, achieving thousands of dollars in energy savings.
Hydro-Thermal's patented DSI heating system works by mixing steam and process liquids completely while delivering consistent temperature and instantaneous heating. For more information on our advanced direct steam injection technology, click here
Applications for Municipal, Agricultural, and Industrial Wastewater
Anaerobic digester sludge heating – recirculation or preheating
A reliable heating source for anaerobic digestion is imperative to ensure production (or capture) of biogas/methane.
What does your plant need from an Anaerobic Digestion Heater?
The NOH’s high heating capability and range enable it to transition easily from shutdown to startup to maintenance mode, bringing the anaerobic digester up to temperature with extreme precision.
Precise temperatures without fear of scalding
Achieve ideal temperatures of 85-100°F (29-38°C) for mesophilic digestion or 120-140°F (49- 60°C) for thermophilic digestion to optimize biogas generation. The NOH provides more efficient way of heating than the conventional heat exchanger.
Non-Obstructing Heater (NOH) design that reduces maintenance
The NOH’s straight flow-through design can ensure that rags do not get caught and plug the heater. The NOH can be produced using wear and corrosion resistant metallurgies to withstand grit and highly abrasive materials.
The inline design of the NOH frees up valuable plant space.
Combined with HTC’s NOH design and the process inputs given for the application, Hydro-Thermal has the optimal solution.
Digester Heating - Reclaimed heat with a pump
Digester Recirculation Heating
Click here to learn more by reading our industrial wastewater case study
Click below to watch a short informative video on the NOH heater
Heating during industrial pretreatment is imperative to optimize separation, leading to an increase in oil yield.
What does your plant need from a Pretreatment Heater?
Maximize fats, oils, and grease (FOG) extraction while reducing or eliminating breaker chemicals
Hydro-Thermal's non-shear heater will heat the FOG waste stream to the optimal temperature to maximize oil extraction via a centrifuge, decanter, or tricanter process. With precise temperature control, oil yield (and ultimately revenue) can be increased.
Optimizing oil extraction is governed by Stoke's Law. Several factors make up Stoke's Law. Using Hydro-Thermal's non-shear heater help decrease the viscosity and increase the relative density of the waste oil stream, resulting in increased yield. The added temperature enables a possible reduction in emulsion breaker chemical dosing.
Easily and efficiently heats tanks on in-feed or in recirc mode (trim heat). We can heat the fluid going into the tank, re-circulate the tank to maintain a specific temperature, or leave the tank cold and heat the liquid exiting the tank, producing hot water on demand.
Click here to learn why tank heating is more efficient by utilizing a Hydroheater vs. a sparger.
What is Steam Hammer & How to Eliminate Steam Hammer
If your heating equipment is violently shaking, then it is a concern that needs to be addressed. It is not only dangerous, but it also can be an expensive maintenance problem. Externally modulated technologies such as heat exchangers or unsophisticated forms of direct steam injection, such as spargers, can cause steam hammer. For more information on external vs. internal modulation, direct and indirect heating, and the spectrum of direct steam injection products, click here.
Why is Steam Hammer Happening?
There are multiple reasons why this cavitation issue could be occurring. Below are a few common scenarios.
Uncondensed steam causes bubbles to form and collapse on tank walls, causing hammer and damage to the tank and peripheral piping.
Check if you have an externally modulated steam pressure valve. This type of operation can lead to steam hammer or unit vibration as the steam mixes with the process fluid in the piping or tank. Over time, this can contribute to equipment wear, piping damage and lead to poor performance. If you have an externally modulated valve, consider purchasing an internally modulated option, which eliminates the problems associated with hammer and vibration.
Monitor flow changes. Ideally, they should be gradual, and the temperature control loop should be able to respond to these changes. Review the initial sizing conditions provided to the equipment manufacturer. If production has increased or processing conditions have changed, the equipment may no longer be properly sized. Updated equipment or new components may be needed to compensate for these variations.
Check your steam line for condensate. If there is excessive condensate in the steam line, then hammering and vibration could occur. If needed, purge the steam line. Depending on the piece of equipment, a drip leg and condensate trap may be recommended. Check with the equipment manufacturer for their specific recommendations.
Why is Cavitation a Concern?
Inconsistent steam mixing and heat transfer leads to product inconsistency and wasted energy.
Imprecise temperature control from steam hammering translates to higher energy costs.
Tanks walls can be damaged, leading to maintenance headaches from welding over the damaged sections of the tank. Damaged tank walls can also be a major safety concern if hot water and hot steam would shoot out of the sides of a tank.
Steam hammer can lead to a process equipment failure if the problem is severe enough. Not to be mistaken for water hammer that occurs in piping systems that utilize quick closing valves or that do not have a proper attenuation system, steam hammer is a result of uncondensed steam instantaneously cavitating on the tank wall or piping with damaging force.
How can you Prevent Equipment Vibration?
Hydro-Thermal’s patented direct steam injection heaters and skid systems are designed to eliminate steam hammer and vibration, among other benefits. Hydro-Thermal’s internally modulated Jetcooker™ utilizes a single nozzle which focuses the incoming steam and accelerates it to a very high velocity (usually sonic velocity) before it comes into contact with the process fluid. This high velocity helps to atomize the steam bubbles and shear the incoming process fluid, which allows for a more complete, efficient heat transfer. The result is no steam hammer, precise/uniform heating, and reduced maintenance.
Contact us today to get a free evaluation from our application experts. They can provide tips on how to optimize your heating and eliminate steam hammer.
Not only will a Jetcooker™ help eliminate steam hammer and equipment vibrations, but it will also improve your process efficiency. Receive two benefits in one by replacing your current heating system for one that can improve ROI. Head over to our Steam Energy Saving Calculator to discover how much you can save along with eliminating steam hammer.
How Does Direct Steam Injection Work?
Direct Steam Injection works by directly injecting steam into a process fluid to obtain more rapid heat transfer, resulting in more efficient energy usage than indirect heat exchangers. This efficient process of heating is caused by our direct steam injection Hydroheaters ability to control both steam flow and mixing turbulence by using a modulating stem plug and nozzle or diffuser assembly in the heater. This precise mixing of a measured amount of high-velocity steam directly with your liquid or slurry provides an instantaneous heat transfer from steam to the fluid. This heat transfer method allows for 100% thermal efficiency and energy savings of 20-25%. Don’t believe us? Head over to our Energy Savings Calculator to get an accurate estimate of how much you can be saving in operating costs.
A precisely engineered, variable-area steam nozzle or diffuser meters the flow at the point of injection and contact with the fluid. The large pressure drop from full steam pressure to the process fluid pressure ensures high-velocity choked steam flow and instantaneous mixing of the two streams. When steam flow is choked, its velocity at the nozzle or diffuser exit is constant regardless of the total mass flow injected. The internally modulated Hydro-Thermal heaters control the amount of injection area (cross-sectional area of the nozzle or diffuser opening) to regulate the heat load precisely—the constant steam velocity results in consistent and stable operation across the full range of operations.
Hydro-Thermal’s patented direct steam injection heaters use direct heat exchange to transfer 100% of the steam’s energy for heating liquids and slurries over a wide range of viscosities and solid contents to precise temperatures. A Hydroheater’s internal modulation assures exacting steam control and rapid temperature management and produces predictable results. Each Hydro-Thermal heater has an internal trim custom designed for each customer’s specific needs and requirements.
Direct Steam Injection Technology
Hydroheaters/Jetcookers commonly outperform other forms of direct steam injection and indirect heating methods such as heat exchangers. Use the links below to learn more about how Hydro-Thermal’s patented technology outperforms the status quo.
External vs. Internal Modulation:
Externally or Internally modulated direct steam injection refers to how the mass flow of steam injected into the process fluid is controlled.
External modulation uses a steam control valve on the supply line to vary the pressure of the steam at the point of injection: Varying the pressure changes the steam density and velocity through the nozzle to control the amount of heating. Regulating steam pressure to control heating can result in unstable operation, hammering, and vibration when high or low steam flowrates are required. At low steam flow, i.e., trim heating, the differential between steam pressure and the process can be very small, and a slight fluctuation in either pressure can cause an upset. Alternatively, at high steam flow requirements, i.e., max heating at startup, the orifice or nozzle size will allow more steam than can be condensed, and steam hammer occurs.
Internally modulated DSI controls the injection area rather than steam velocity and density to regulate the amount of heating. An internally modulated heater operates at higher steam velocities compared to external modulation. This higher velocity produces improved, often rapid mixing and nearly instantaneous condensation of the steam into the process fluid.
There are two basic types of heat exchangers used to transfer heat between process fluids — direct heat exchange and indirect. Indirect heating is most commonly seen in the form of plate & frame or shell & tube heat exchangers. Any process that does not allow direct mixing of steam and fluid is indirect heating. Heat exchangers transfer heat through a membrane or solid wall. This results in only ~ 83% of the heat energy transferred to the process fluid. In contrast, the remaining energy is discharged in the condensate formed from the steam.
On the other hand, direct heating uses 100% of the steam’s heat energy by adding steam directly to the process fluid.
The benefits of using direct contact heating vs. indirect include:
Energy savings of 25% or more
Precise and instantaneous temperature control is possible to within 1°F
Reduced footprint for direct steam injection system
Reduces maintenance via self-cleaning and elimination of a condensate return system
Rapid and uniform heating -important in starches and food product
Can heat highly viscous fluid
Handles fluids that are difficult to heat—avoids “bake-on”; abrasive slurries
Eliminates plugging and fouling of the heat transfer surface
Hydro-Thermal’s heaters utilize direct steam injection. This general term refers to any type of fluid heating that uses steam being directly mixed with water or process fluid. There are many forms of direct steam injection, including spargers, eductor pumps, externally modulated heaters, and internally modulated heaters. Each method varies in its levels of complexity, with sparging being the most simple and internally modulated, having the greatest level of technology and control.
Hydro-Thermal’s technology, which utilizes internal modulation, is the most advanced form of direct steam injection. It has many benefits over other direct heating methods, including:
Reduced steam consumption
Significantly lower energy costs, 100% efficient use of steam energy
Handles fluids that are difficult to heat—avoids “burn-on”; highly viscous or abrasive slurries are no problem
Steam Sparging is the oldest, most straightforward and least complicated technique for mixing steam with liquid or slurry to affect heating. It is injecting steam directly into a fluid-filled tank. Though considered inexpensive and straightforward, sparging is very inefficient, and the operation invariably results in:
Poor heat injection economics due to steam energy escaping from vessels without condensing.
High maintenance costs for tanks, sensors, and piping are the norm if the equipment operates outside the design parameters.
Equipment failure (both vessel and sparger pipes) due to the vibration associated with steam hammer when not operated within their narrow design envelope.
Usually less than satisfactory on/off process control. A sparger is the least controllable direct steam injection heating method.
The externally modulating sparger tube (MST) heater consists of a spring controlled, variable-injection sparger tube inside a cast process flow body. In response to a temperature sensor, the external flow control valve modulates the steam to a spring-loaded piston. MST heaters work reasonably well on clear liquids and some low solids solutions. Still, they are subject to severe clogging and steam hammer if frequent maintenance is not performed. In typical water heating applications, these devices typically require monthly tear down and acid bath cleaning. Since the steam flow is dependent upon a spring-loaded valve, accurate temperature control is difficult once the spring begins to wear.
Additionally, if low (trim heating) or high steam flow is required, the spring mechanism can have difficulty with accurate or stable control. Spring failure is a common issue with this type of heater. Additional drawbacks of sparge tubes are:
Requires external steam control valve
Very high maintenance
Prone to scaling and fouling
Steam hammer common
Limited temperature control due to external control
Internal spring prone to wear and breakage
Mixing Ts combine separate streams of steam and cold water to produce heated water. Because accurate temperature control is difficult to maintain with this method, mixing Ts is not the best choice for process fluids. When used for water, mixing tees are prone to scaling, fouling, and excessive hammer. Their operation often requires steam and water pressure to be very close to each other for balanced mixing. When either steam or water pressure fluctuates slightly, the higher pressure line can overcome the other and backfill the piping. This can result in live steam discharging the system. The drawback of Mixing Ts are:
Very high maintenance
Prone to scaling and fouling
Steam hammer is common
Potentially very dangerous due to live steam being close to human contact